Preheat the oven to 100 C or and place the jars into it to sterilize for at least 20 minutes. Remove them and let them cool a little so you can handle them.
Open the olives and with the side of a heavy knife crush them just enough to open them a bit so that the marinade will penetrate their skins. This is really important if you are using harder green olives.
In the bottom of the jar place a big pinch of the coriander seeds, fennel seeds, salt and a few of the peppercorns, toss in one of the cloves of broken garlic and a piece or two of the cut up lemon and one spoonful of vinegar.
Put in a small handful of the olives and keep repeating the process until the jar is half full then add the second spoonful of vinegar and continue. Not to forget the thyme or rosemary sprigs if you using fresh and the bay leaves.
When the jar is full, finish of by pouring enough olive oil over the contents to completely cover the olives and the jars contents and turn the jar upside down a couple of time to help distribute the spices in the jar. It is important that nothing sticks up over the top of the oil.
Place into the fridge and they are ready to use.
After one week in the fridge it is a good idea to remove the lemon, garlic, and any fresh herbs that you used to avoid them going bad. The olive and oil will last at least 6 weeks in the fridge.